Ale: made with top-fermenting yeast and better at warmer temperatures. Generally has a fruitier taste.
Lager: made with bottom-fermenting yeast and better at colder temperatures. Generally has a cleaner, crisper taste.
Stout: a type of ale usually made with roasted, unmilled barley, resulting in a lasting head.
Pilsner: the lightest type of regular lager.
Bock: strongest and often dark, traditionally brewed in spring at the end of the brewing season. But it's just an old wives' tale that it comes from the bottom of the barrel.
India pale ale (IPA): Originally made for export to India, this English brew gets its strong flavor from the extra hops that were used to preserve it over long sea voyages.
Lite beer: has fewer calories, true (not by a lot, says brewmaster Matt Hahn of Rocky Run Tap & Grill), but can be duplicated by adding water to regular beer.